Permanent pacemaker implantation is associated with an increased risk of heart failure hospitalization in transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients with reduced systolic function

Jakob Naß (Würzburg)1, D. Liu (Würzburg)1, K. Hu (Würzburg)1, A. Dormann (Würzburg)1, V. Sokalski (Würzburg)1, K. Lau (Würzburg)1, C. Morbach (Würzburg)1, B. D. Lengenfelder (Würzburg)1, G. Ertl (Würzburg)1, S. Frantz (Würzburg)1, P. Nordbeck (Würzburg)1

1Universitätsklinikum Würzburg Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I Würzburg, Deutschland



The impact of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) on outcome of patients following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the impact of PPI on risk of two-year mortality and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF) in TAVI patients.


A total of 1275 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI at our hospital between 2009 and 2021 were enrolled in this study (mean age 81.4±5.6 years, 51.8% male). The primary endpoint was defined as two-year all-cause death after TAVI. The second endpoints included cardiovascular (CV) death and HF related hospitalization after TAVI.


Among the 1275 patients following TAVI, 297 (23.3%) patients received PPI, with 134 receiving PPI before TAVI and 172 receiving PPI within one month after TAVI. The patients were categorized into two groups: no PPI group (n=978) and PPI group (n=297). Compared to patients without PPI, patients who received PPI were more likely to be male (60.9% vs. 49.1%, P<0.001), higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (51.2% vs. 43.3%, P=0.016), coronary artery disease (61.6% vs. 53.8%, P=0.017), use aldosterone receptor antagonists (MRAs, 25.3% vs. 15.2%, P<0.001), and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, 54.9±13.1% vs. 57.5±11.4%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality (16.6% vs. 18.5%), CV mortality (11.3% vs. 13.5%), as well as HF hospitalization rate (18.5% vs, 21.2%) between the two groups (P>0.05).

In this cohort, 1012 (79.4%) TAVI patients had a preserved LVEF (≥50%), 122 (9.6%) had a mildly reduced LVEF (41-49%), and 141 (11.1%) had reduced LVEF (≤40%). Their primary and secondary outcomes were similar among LVEF subgroups (all P>0.05). In the subgroup of reduced LVEF, the HF related hospitalization rate after TAVI was significantly higher in TAVI patients with PPI compared to those without PPI (30.6% vs. 13.0%, P=0.003). Multivariable Cox regression models demonstrated a 3-fold increased risk of HF related hospitalization in TAVI patients with PPI in comparison to those without PPI in the subgroup of LVEF≤40% (HR 3.057, 95% CI 1.311-7.130, P=0.010) after adjusting for age, sex, TAVI approach, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and the use of MRAs.


All-cause mortality and CV mortality are similar between TAVI patients with and without PPI. However, in the subset of TAVI patients with reduced LVEF (≤40%), PPI is associated with an increased risk of HF hospitalization. Efforts are thus needed to reduce the risk of HF hospitalization in these patients.

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