Correlation of prosthesis position on mid-term pacing burden in patients with new permanent pacemaker after TAVI

Ramona Schmitt (Bad Krozingen)1, Y. Salz-Sculean (Bad Krozingen)1, J. Hein (Bad Krozingen)1, J. Brado (Bad Krozingen)1, M. Apweiler (Bad Krozingen)1, S. Schöchlin (Bad Krozingen)1, M. Hein (Bad Krozingen)1, D. Westermann (Bad Krozingen)1, P. Ruile (Bad Krozingen)1, P. Breitbart (Bad Krozingen)1

1Universitäts-Herzzentrum Freiburg / Bad Krozingen Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie Bad Krozingen, Deutschland


Background: Prior studies suggest a strong correlation of the final prosthesis position on the occurrence of new conduction disturbances resulting in permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). A high burden right ventricular pacing (PPM stimulation rate of > 20 %) is associated with poor long-term outcomes. So far, data about predictors influencing the PPM stimulation rate after TAVI are scarce. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the three-dimensional transcatheter heart valve (THV) position, as well as device landing zone characteristics or peri-/post-procedural factors on the stimulation rate in patients with new implanted PPM as TAVI complication.

Materials and Results: We evaluated the final THV position of 387 patients (106 with self-expanding Evolut R THV, 281 with balloon-expandable Sapien 3 THV) using fusion imaging of pre- and post-TAVI computed tomography angiography (CTA) to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of the THV within the native annulus region. The length of the THV above and below the native annulus was measured within the fused images to assess the implantation depth. PPM stimulation rates were examined pre-discharge and after 3 months. Patient’s clinical long-term outcome was evaluated over 5 years via standardized questionnaire as well as contacting general practitioners.
Out of the 387 patients 112 (29%) received a new PPM pre-discharge after TAVI between 2014 and 2022. They were grouped into patients with stimulations rate below and above 20%. A stimulation rate > 20% in the PPM control before discharge and after three months was detected in 69 % and 67 % of them, respectively.
Using uni- and multivariate logistic regression analysis, only new occurred third degree atrioventricular blocks (p=0.007) was identified as predictor for high burden right ventricular pacing after PPM-implantation as well as after 3 months. The implantation depth of the THV showed no influence on the PPM stimulation rate – neither the mean value nor the exact implantation depth adjacent the left, right and non-coronary cusp (P=0.455, P=0.108 and P=0.932, respectively).
There were no significant differences regarding MACE between both groups during long-term follow-up; only the degree of dyspnea 5 years after TAVI was significantly higher in patients with a stimulation rate > 20% (p=0.01).

Conclusion:  We detected no correlation of the exact three-dimensional THV position on mid-term pacing burden in 112 patients implanted with a new PPM after TAVI using CTA fusion imaging. Only a new occurred third degree atrioventricular block was a predictor for a high burden right ventricular pacing (stimulation rate >20%). These results provide important insights into which patients actually require PPM implantation after TAVI.
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