Intraprocedural and outcome findings in repeat left atrial procedures after Pulsed Field Ablation for Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

Jonas Wörmann (Köln)1, J. Lüker (Köln)1, J.-H. van den Bruck (Köln)1, K. Filipovic (Köln)1, S. C. R. Erlhöfer (Köln)1, C. Scheurlen (Köln)1, S. Dittrich (Köln)1, J. Ackmann (Köln)1, F. Pavel (Köln)1, J.-H. Schipper (Köln)1, D. Steven (Köln)1, A. Sultan (Köln)1

1Herzzentrum der Universität zu Köln Elektrophysiologie Köln, Deutschland



Pulsed Field Ablation (PFA) has emerged as a promising novel technique for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in the setting of atrial fibrillation. First outcome data revealed comparable success rates to radiofrequency and cryoablation. However, data on lesion dimensions and reconnection of PV after PFA potentially causing recurrence of AF is sparse. We, therefore report on pivotal reconnection sites and ablation extend after PFA-PVI.



All patients after PFA-PVI for paroxysmal or persistent AF at our center between September 2021 and October 2023 were included in this retrospective analysis. Baseline characteristics, procedural and outcome data were obtained. Furthermore, in all redo procedures of these patients lesion dimensions and the occurrence and location of PV gaps were evaluated.



A total of 123 patients with atrial fibrillation underwent successful PFA-PVI during index procedure. The study cohort comprised [n= 52; 42%] paroxysmal and [n= 71; 58%] persistent atrial fibrillation cases. After a median follow-up of 123 (IQR 93-150) days recurrence of atrial arrhythmia (all AF) occurred in 9 [14. 5%] patients. Of these, 6 [9.6%] patients underwent a redo procedure due to recurrence of atrial fibrillation (3 PAF and 3 persAF [50%]; p=1). All left atrial maps and 24 PVs were analyzed. All 6 [100%] patients exhibited electrical reconnection of one or more pulmonary vein. Analysis of redo procedures revealed that the dimensions of PFA-induced lesions varied among patients: The right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV) showed reconnection in all redo-patients (100%). Also frequent reconnection was observed for the RSPV (3 pts [50%]) and LIPV (2 pts [33%]). The gap size was 66±40% of the circumference in the reconnected RPVs and 61±31% in the reconnected LPVs. A roof-line lesion set was performed in 4 out of 6 pts (67%) due to the initially antral PV lesions affecting the posterior wall and LA roof potentially creating an isthmus for roof-dependent atrial tachycardia (AT).



Outcome data for PFA-PVI are comparable to other energy sources used for PVI. However, reconnection of PV also occurs after PFA-PVI. This retrospective analysis of redo procedures after initially successful PVI identified the RIPV as pivotal for reconnection. Furthermore, map analysis revealed that reconnection gaps extend to up to 2/3 of the initial circumferential PV ablation area. Furthermore, PFA seems to create new critical isthmuses potentially causing AT. No difference in reconnection was seen comparing PAF and persAF.

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